Sore Throat -- Causes and Cures
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Last updated April 19,2017, originally published October 22, 2009,

By Susan M. Callahan,  Featured Columnist


Most people experience a sore throat, technically called
pharyngitis, at some point in their lives.  According to the
Centers for Disease Control, each year more than 7 million
people are treated in hospitals for sore throats. What are
the causes of sore throat?  When should you see a doctor
for a sore throat? What home remedies are effective for
relieving sore throats?

Sore throats can be caused by a number of conditions.
Simply breathing through your mouth at night can cause a
sore throat. At the more serious end of the spectrum, sore
throats can be caused by serious bacterial and viral
infections and even cancer.


Here are the 20 most common causes and treatments of
sore throats.




























1.
Strep Throat. Strep throat is caused by the
streptococcus A bacterium. Once this bacteria the body, it
infects the tonsils, and lining of the throat. In addition to a
sore throat, some strep sufferers also have fever.  Almost
all strep throats cases involve fever and swelling of lymph
nodes. (Read more about
swollen lymph nodes causes and
remedies.)

Less common are symptoms of vomiting and
gastrointestinal complaints, according to a 1998  study by
the Michigan State University College of Human Medicine.
This study found that about only 29% of patients who
complain of sore throats have strep throat.

The only effective treatment for strep throat is a doctor's
prescription of  antibacterial medication, typically penicillin
of some sort. The only way to know if you have a simple
sore throat or strep throat is to be screened by a doctor.

Update:

If strep throat is misdiagnosed, it can lead to a serious,
life-threatening illness, septicemia. The strep virus can
infect your blood, leading to septicemia, literally blood
infection. This can lead to organ failure and even death.

2.
Common Cold. According to the National Institutes of
Health, the common cold is responsible for the vast
majority of  throats.
Remedies for the common cold actually
are measures to shorten the duration and severity of your
cold. According to research, the most effective remedies
include zinc supplements, Vitamin C and chicken soup.  To
ease your throat, try gargling with solution of warm water
( 8 ounces) and a teaspoon of salt.

3.
Croup. Croup is a viral respiratory infection characterized
by a deep barking cough. Children contract croup more
esily than adults, and pass it easily among themslves as
they play or gather at school. The viruses that can cause
croup include parainlfluenza type 1 (75% of the cases), flu
(influenza A and B), diptheria (quite rare today), repiratory
syncytial virus, adenovirus, coronavirus, metapneumonia
virus, mycoplasma and rhinovirus.

There are several types of croup, varying in degree of
severity and the absence or presence of fever. In rare
cases, resulting in respiratory failure, children can die from
croup. For this reason, any case of croup should be
examined by your child's doctor before resorting to home
remedies.  

In most cases, croup symptoms clear up in 48 hours. In a
small percentage of cases, symptoms can last up to a week.

For centuries, parents have used mist and home-made
humidifiers to treat croup. One age-old remedy  
recommends exposing children with croup to cold air
periodically. Commercial cool-mist humidfiers also bring
relief. Eliminating milk and other dairy products also seems
to reduce the mucuos associated with many cases of
croup.  

It's also very important to limit your child's exposure to
pollution. A 1971 study lead by doctors at the Children's
Hospital, University of Frankfurt  and the  German
Meteorological Bureau at Offenbach found a strong
correlation between deah from croup and exposure to
pollution.  

4.
Mouth Breathing. Breathing through your mouth at night
can cause a sore throat.

When you breathe through your nose, the air is filtered by
tiny hairs (filia) that help to trap bacteria and viruses
before they reach your throat and lungs.

When you breathe through your mouth, the air is not
filtered, and irritation and infection if your throat and lungs
can occur. (Read about the connection between
mouth
breathing and snoring.)

5.
Allergies. Allergies are a common cause of sore throats.
Air borne allegens can cause coughing which rakes the
lining of the throat, causing soreness.

5.
Smoking. A chronic cough is often the first clue that
your smoking is causing respiratory irritation, which
precedes cancer of the throat and lungs.

6.
Acid Reflux or GERD. Acid reflux, also known as
heartburn or , it is occurs frequently,
GERD, can actually
burn the lining of the throat, making it sore. To prevent
acid reflux or GERD, you should change your diet to avoid
alcohol and other food triggers and avoid lying down soon
after you eat or try
other remedies for GERD.

7.
Mononucleosis.

8.
Tonsilitis.

9.
Dry Air. Breathing dry air can also lead to dry mouth and
trouble swallowing.

10.
Air Pollution. People who live in heavily polluted cites
suffer higher incidences of sore throats.
In Beijing, China,
for example,
pollution levels can reach levels that are 10
times higher than recommended by the World Health
Organization
, giving many residents what has become
known as the "Beijing cough".


11.
Measles.

12.
Chicken Pox.

13.
Thrush. Thrush is a yeast infection that can affect the
throat.
Common remedies for thrush include making dietary
changes to reduce the amount of sugar you eat. Cold
yogurt also helps thrush in many cases.

14.
Snoring.  Heavy snoring can scrape the delicate lining
of the throat and cause soreness. Several
home remedies
for snoring are effective, including sleeping on your side
and using a humidifier at night.

15.
Cancer of the Larynx.

16. Cancer of the Esophagus.

17. Cytomegalo Virus.

18.
Other Bacteria . In addition to the streptococcus
bacteria, other bacteria that cause sore throats  include
arcanobacterium and corynebacterium.

19. STDs. Chlamydia pneumonia and Neisseria gonorrhea
can cause sore throats.

20.
Quinsy. What is quinsy? Quinsy, also known as
"peritonsilar abscess", is an infection in which pus-filled  
abscesses form at the back of the throat.

Quinsy usually occurs as a secondary infection, when a
primary infection from tonsilitis spreads to the throat.
According to the National Health Service in the UK,
treatment for quinsy typically involves injections of
antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cephalasporins,
penicillin,clavulanic acid and clindamycin. In some cases,
steroids are also given to speed up recovery from quinsy.























































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